Charles Minard's Napoleon March diagram.
This is one of my favorite information graphic. I first saw it during a lecture about organizing information during fall foundation year and it became super memorable and I still remember it to this day. There's many elements in this whole diagram and it was all successfully conveyed. The tan line shows how many people Napoleon has in his army during his march from France to Russia and the black line shows the number going back to France. Minard also shows the temperature at the bottom for the returning trip. On the background of the traveling lines, there's also lines and text to tell where the army was geographically, like rivers and battles/cities. Whenever the line weight changes, he puts the amount of people alive and there's also scale for the distance on the bottom right corner ish. So really, in this one diagram, Minard uses time, stats, and map. He used lines and colors to indicated different aspects along with text to support his visual.

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